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Stroke Survivors

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Yefim Alekseev
Yefim Alekseev

Television Essay In Urdu



This was one of the milestones of Pakistani television, featuring brilliant performances from Samiya Mumtaz and Faysal Qureshi. This tragic story hit at the heart of how the concept of modesty and virtue can be used against a woman. There is no redemption, no absolution in this story, it serves as reminder that some things just cannot be taken back. Anyone watching this will be reminded of what a great director Babar Javed used to be.




Television Essay In Urdu



With the recent explosion in television programming and videos aimed at very young children, exposure to electronic media may be one possible trigger. One study found that on a typical day, four out of five children aged 6 months to 6 years old use screen media (TV, videos and DVDs, computers, and video games), for an average of two hours per day. While similar statistics for earlier periods are hard to come by, it seems likely that young children are spending more time in front of the television today than they did in the past.


In "Does Television Cause Autism?" (NBER Working Paper 12632), researchers Michael Waldman, Sean Nicholson, and Nodir Adilov explore the hypothesis that "a small segment of the population is vulnerable to developing autism because of their underlying biology and that either too much or certain types of early childhood television watching serves as a trigger for the condition."


This theory has received little attention in the medical literature. It may seem like an unusual topic for a trio of economists to tackle, not only because of the subject matter but also due to the difficulty of identifying a causal relationship between television watching and autism. If watching more television is associated with higher rates of autism in the data, this does not prove that television is an autism trigger. There could be a third factor - for example, the child's diet - that is correlated with both television watching and autism and is the real trigger. It could also be the case that children who are vulnerable to developing autism have a predilection for watching lots of television, so that the direction of causality runs from autism to television watching rather than the reverse.


The authors' key contribution is to identify "natural experiments" that can be used to help establish a causal relationship between television watching and autism. The authors reason that children are likely to watch more television if they live in an area that gets more precipitation If that is the case, then a finding that areas with higher levels of precipitation have higher autism rates would be strongly suggestive of a role for television watching as an autism trigger, particularly if precipitation levels essentially vary randomly across areas that are otherwise quite similar.


The authors first use data from the American Time Use Survey to confirm the link between precipitation and television watching. The results suggest a strong relationship - a child under age 3 watches an average of 27 additional minutes of television on a day with one inch of precipitation (which is equivalent to a day of heavy rain) than on a day with no precipitation.


While the results indicate that "there is a trigger for autism where exposure to this trigger is positively related with the amount of precipitation in the child's community prior to the age of three," it does not prove that television watching is the trigger, since there could be other indoor activities that children are also more likely to engage in when it rains. As another way to test their hypothesis, the authors explore whether the share of households in a community with subscriptions to cable television is positively correlated with autism rates. They find that it is, and that this correlation cannot be explained simply by the fact that both cable subscriptions and autism rates were rising over the study period, since communities where subscription rates grew faster experienced faster growth in autism rates as well.


The study's findings suggest a quantitatively important role for television viewing in autism diagnoses. The authors estimate that 38 percent of autism diagnoses can be attributed to the additional television watching that occurs due to precipitation and that 17 percent of the increase in autism rates over a twenty-year period is due to the growth of cable households and subsequent increase in early childhood television watching.


The authors caution "although our findings are consistent with our hypothesis, we do not believe our findings represent definitive evidence for our hypothesis. We believe the only way to establish definitively whether or not early childhood television watching is a trigger for autism is to more directly test the hypothesis." Nonetheless, they suggest that until more research can be conducted, it may be prudent to place additional emphasis on the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics that early television watching should be eliminated or at least quite limited. The authors note "we see little downside in taking this step and a very large upside if it turns out that television indeed causes autism."


IPTV (Internet Protocol television) is a service that provides television programming and other video content using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite, as opposed to broadcast TV, cable TV or satellite signals.


In traditional television delivery, all programming is broadcast simultaneously in a multicast format. The available program signals flow downstream, and viewers select programs by changing the TV channel.


When a viewer changes the channel, a new stream is transmitted from the provider's server directly to the viewer. Like cable television, IPTV requires a set-top box or other customer premises devices, such as a Wi-Fi router or a fiber optic or broadband internet connection.


IPTV primarily uses IP multicasting with Internet Group Management Protocol for IPv4-based live television broadcasts and Real-Time Streaming Protocol for on-demand programs. Multicast Listener Discovery is used on IPv6 networks. Other common protocols include Real-Time Messaging Protocol and Hypertext Transfer Protocol.


The use of IP also enables providers to support various other services and applications, such as video on demand, interactive TV, livestreaming, in-program messaging and time shifting, a broad term for TV services that enable viewers to consume content in ways other than live broadcasts, e.g., digital recording, on-demand television shows and the ability to rewind or restart a live program already in progress.


In the early years of television people were much more sensitive to what was said and took offence to any form of obscene language. Even in the movies it was unacceptable. However, for many the standard for the use of vulgar language has expanded. In many shows on television vulgar words are used way too often.


Profanity in television is not so much a problem as it is an annoyance. It makes television more interesting to watch and can occasionally makes a situation more humorous, but one does not enjoy it when a five-year-old calls their parents a-holes to their face.


Taking cues from USA and Europe, the channels have recently introduced to all the television shows is the new rating system. This system was implemented to warn about the kind of shows on television. The system tells whether the show is too mature for young children. However, does the system still have flaws?


Blight on television would be the use of drugs. Unlike vulgarity and sex one really does have a problem with drug use. There is really no use for it on television and one would prefer to never see it. Although people are totally against it really do think that there is a difference between seeing someone spark a joint and watching them stick their arms with a dirty needle- It is my opinion that if young children see this they will become curious and want to experiment. And if this happens they will someday be eating a steady diet of government cheese and be living in a van down by the river.


Probably the most talked about subject when it comes to bad-mouthing of television. This has become a serious problem in television. Even in the days of early television violence had been around. However, since those days it has become much worse. Instead of kids jumping of cliffs thinking they are superman, or hitting each other over the head with a frying pan, they are hitting each other over the head with a steel chair and choking out their friends like a wrestler.


Few inventions have had as much effect on contemporary American society as television. Before 1947 the number of U.S. homes with television sets could be measured in the thousands. By the late 1990s, 98 percent of U.S. homes had at least one television set, and those sets were on for an average of more than seven hours a day. The typical American spends (depending on the survey and the time of year) from two-and-a-half to almost five hours a day watching television. It is significant not only that this time is being spent with television but that it is not being spent engaging in other activities, such as reading or going out or socializing.


Electronic television was first successfully demonstrated in San Francisco on Sept. 7, 1927. The system was designed by Philo Taylor Farnsworth, a 21-year-old inventor who had lived in a house without electricity until he was 14. While still in high school, Farnsworth had begun to conceive of a system that could capture moving images in a form that could be coded onto radio waves and then transformed back into a picture on a screen. Boris Rosing in Russia had conducted some crude experiments in transmitting images 16 years before Farnsworth's first success. Also, a mechanical television system, which scanned images using a rotating disk with holes arranged in a spiral pattern, had been demonstrated by John Logie Baird in England and Charles Francis Jenkins in the United States earlier in the 1920s. However, Farnsworth's invention, which scanned images with a beam of electrons, is the direct ancestor of modern television. The first image he transmitted on it was a simple line. Soon he aimed his primitive camera at a dollar sign because an investor had asked, "When are we going to see some dollars in this thing, Farnsworth?"


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