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Brent Sullivan
Brent Sullivan

Brassica Oleracea Italica !!TOP!!



The Italica Group of Brassica oleracea is broccoli. The Genus name Brassica is Latin for cabbage. It is a cool-season vegetable that is typically grown in the spring or fall and is harvested to eat the stems and unopened flower buds. While less commonly eaten, the leaves and opened flowers are edible as well. This cultivar group is in the same species as some other well-known cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, and Brussels Sprouts, set apart by selective breeding for thick stems and large, compact flower heads.




brassica oleracea italica



Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is an edible green plant in the cabbage family (family Brassicaceae, genus Brassica) whose large flowering head, stalk and small associated leaves are eaten as a vegetable. Broccoli is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. Broccoli has large flower heads, usually dark green, arranged in a tree-like structure branching out from a thick stalk which is usually light green. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli resembles cauliflower, which is a different but closely related cultivar group of the same Brassica species.


Other cultivar groups of Brassica oleracea include cabbage (Capitata Group), cauliflower and Romanesco broccoli (Botrytis Group), kale (Acephala Group), collard (Viridis Group), kohlrabi (Gongylodes Group), Brussels sprouts (Gemmifera Group), and kai-lan (Alboglabra Group).[10] As these groups are the same species, they readily hybridize: for example, broccolini or "Tenderstem broccoli" is a cross between broccoli and kai-lan.[11] Broccoli cultivars form the genetic basis of the "tropical cauliflowers" commonly grown in South and Southeastern Asia, although they produce a more cauliflower-like head in warmer conditions.[12][8]


Brassica oleracea (Italica Group), commonly called broccoli, is a cool weather vegetable that is grown for harvest of large, tight, terminal heads of green flower buds at the ends of thick edible stems. It is grown in St. Louis as an annual. Plants typically grow to 18-30" tall. Harvest broccoli promptly as soon as the heads are firm and tight and before any of the buds begin to open. Cut the stem about 5-6" below the base of the head. Broccoli is in the same species (Brassica oleracea) as a number of other cool season vegetables including kale, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and kohlrabi.Genus name comes from the classical Latin name for cabbage.Specific epithet means of vegetable gardens.


Brassica oleracea is a plant species from family Brassicaceae that includes many common cultivars used as vegetables, such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi, and gai lan.


A 2021 study suggested that the Eastern Mediterranean Brassica cretica was the origin of domesticated B. oleracea.[4] Genetic analysis of nine wild populations on the French Atlantic coast indicated their common feral origin, deriving from domesticated plants escaped from fields and gardens.[5]


B. oleracea has become established as an important human food crop plant, used because of its large food reserves, which are stored over the winter in its leaves. It is rich in essential nutrients including vitamin C. It has been bred into a wide range of cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collards, and kale, some of which are hardly recognizable as being members of the same genus, let alone species.[9] The historical genus of Crucifera, meaning "cross-bearing" in reference to the four-petaled flowers, may be the only unifying feature beyond taste.


According to the Triangle of U theory, B. oleracea is very closely related to five other species of the genus Brassica.[15] A 2021 study suggested that Brassica cretica, native to the Eastern Mediterranean, particularly Greece and the Aegean Islands, was the closest living relative of cultivated B. oleracea, thus supporting the view that its cultivation originated in the Eastern Mediterranean region, with later admixture from other Brassica species.[4]


The cultivars of B. oleracea are grouped by developmental form into several major cultivar groups, of which the Acephala ("non-heading") group remains most like the natural wild cabbage in appearance. For a list of these groups, see the table of cultivars.


Succeeds in full sun in a well-drained fertile preferably alkaline soil[16, 200]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3. Prefers a heavy soil[16]. Succeeds in any reasonable soil[33]. Succeeds in maritime gardens[200]. Some forms are very cold-hardy, tolerating temperatures down to about -17c[200]. Broccoli is closely related to the cauliflowers (C. oleracea botrytis) and is often grown for its edible young flowering stems which, by careful selection of varieties, can be available almost all year round from early summer right round to late spring. There are many named varieties and these can be classified into three main groups:- Calabrese, which matures in summer and autumn, is the least cold-hardy form. It produces green, or sometimes purple, flowering heads[264]. Some forms will produce a number of side shoots once the main head has been harvested, though other forms seem unable to do this[264]. Romanesco matures in late summer and the autumn. It has numerous yellowish-green conical groups of buds arranged in spirals[264]. Given a little protection from the cold, it is possible to produce a crop throughout the winter. Unlike the other types of broccoli, romanesco seems unable to produce side shoots once the main head has been harvested[264]. Sprouting broccoli is the most cold-hardy group. It does not form a central head like the other two groups but instead produces a mass of side shoots from early spring until early summer. The more you harvest these shoots, especially if you do so before the flowers open, then the more shoots the plant produces[K]. A good companion for celery and other aromatic plants since these seem to reduce insect predations[18, 20]. Grows badly with potatoes, beet and onions[20]. Grows well with potatoes, beet and onions according to another report[201].


Natural foods are used in many folks and household treatments and have immense potential to treat a serious complication and health benefits, in addition to the basic nutritional values. These food products improve health, delay the aging process, increase life expectancy, and possibly prevent chronic diseases. Purple head Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck is one of such foods and in current studies was explored for chemical compounds at different development stages by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant potential was explored employing different assays like molybdate ion reduction, DPPH, superoxide anion radical scavenging and plasmid nicking assay. Inspired by antioxidant activity results, we further explored these extracts for antiproliferative potential by morphological changes, cell cycle analysis, measurement of intracellular peroxides and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. Current study provides the scientific basis for the use of broccoli as easily affordable potent functional food.


Brassica oleracea includes several morphologically diverse, economically important vegetable crops, such as the cauliflower and cabbage. However, genetic variants, especially large structural variants (SVs), that underlie the extreme morphological diversity of B. oleracea remain largely unexplored.


This study reveals the important roles of SVs in diversification of different morphotypes of B. oleracea, and the newly assembled genomes and the SVs provide rich resources for future research and breeding.


Brassica oleracea includes several diverse dominant vegetable crops with a worldwide total production of nearly 100 million tons in 2018 ( ). The extreme diversity of this species is unique with morphotypes selected for the enlargement of distinct organs that represent the harvested product, e.g., inflorescences for cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis) and broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica), leafy heads (terminal leaf bud) for cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata), lateral leaf buds for brussels sprouts (B. oleracea var. gemmifera), leaves for kale (B. oleracea var. alboglabra), and tuberous stems for kohlrabi (B. oleracea var. gongylodes) [1, 2]. Reference genome sequences have been generated for different morphotypes of B. oleracea during the past several years, including kale [3], cabbage [4,5,6], cauliflower [7], and broccoli [8]. These genome sequences have greatly facilitated genetic variant analyses for a better understanding of the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolution and domestication of B. oleracea.


Structural variants (SVs) including insertions, deletions, duplications, and translocations are abundant throughout plant genomes and are more likely to cause phenotype changes than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [9, 10]. Numerous SVs have been identified as causal genetic variants for important agronomic traits of various crops, such as the 4.7-kb insertion into the third exon of the Or gene leading to the orange curd in cauliflower [11], the 3.7-kb insertion in the upstream region of BnaA9.CYP78A9 leading to the long siliques and large seeds of Brassica napus [12], and the 621-bp insertion in the promoter region of BnaFLC.A10 contributing to the adaptation of rapeseed to winter cultivation environments [13]. Previous genome-wide variant analyses in B. oleracea focused on SNPs and small indels [14, 15] with genomic SVs largely ignored, mainly due to the limitations of using short sequencing reads in genetic variant identification. SV calling through mapping short sequencing reads to a reference genome is subject to high levels of both false negatives and false positives [16], especially for highly repetitive plant genomes such as those of B. oleracea. Therefore, to date, population dynamics of SVs in different B. oleracea morphotypes remain largely unexplored. 041b061a72


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